Heaven et al conducted research on attributional style; students who were more rebellious at school were found to have experienced more Outline and evaluate locus of control experiences and had consequently developed a negative attributional style. Consistency may be important because: Protection of participants - Participants were exposed to extremely stressful situations that may have the potential to cause psychological harm.
According to kelman the person adopts the induced behaviour because it is consistent with their own value system.
Whereas Asch used male participants only, the new study involved both men and women. For example, America is an individualist culture were people are generally less conforming and the results maybe different in collectivist cultures such as Asian countries.
There are two types of attributional styles, positive and negative, the former does not let negative events affect other aspects of their life and the latter blames them selves for negative events and lets them affect other aspects of their lives.
The majority opinion then becomes law, and people have to obey this law. Within hours of beginning the experiment some guards began to harass prisoners. Many of the participants were visibly distressed. Bringing Asch up to date Asch's findings were confounded by the fact that some confederates will be more convincing than others.
They may request researchers make changes to the studies design or procedure, or in extreme cases deny approval of the study altogether. In simplistic terms, a more internal locus of control is generally seen as desirable. Normative influence tends to lead to compliance because the person smokes just for show but deep down they wish not to smoke.
This can lead to the majority taking the minority view seriously. The term locus of control refers to a persons perception of personal control over their own behaviour. Results do not appear to be consistent over time. In contrast a person with a high external locus of control perceive their behaviors as being a result of external influences or luck — e.
Protection of participants - Participants were exposed to extremely stressful situations that may have the potential to cause psychological harm. Thus could potentially put them through some form of psychological harm.
Lots of stooges were required to test each participant. This happens when a person resists the pressures to conform or obey. In each group, three participants wore identical glasses, with one participant wearing a different set, thereby causing them to observe that a different comparison line matched the target line.
In addition Zimbardo did conduct debriefing sessions for several years afterwards and concluded they were no lasting negative effects. They behaved in a brutal and sadistic manner, apparently enjoying it.
This means any change of behavior is temporary. This is when a small group of people the minority manage to persuade the majority to adopt their point of view. Cultures are made up of individuals and there are big individual differences in conformity, as Asch highlighted.
They were sat in cubicles and questions projected onto a screen. Having an Internal locus of control can also be referred to as "self-agency", "personal control", "self-determination", etc.
This possibility was investigated by Nemeth. In fact these were made up and often wrong. They tend to be more specific, generalizing less and considering each situation as unique. For a study on informational influence refer to Jenness see below.
Difficulty of Task When the comparison lines e. As the prisoners became more submissive, the guards became more aggressive and assertive.
This means that the minority must be clear on what they are asking for and not change their minds, or disagree amongst themselves. As a result, they will have a better chance of changing majority views. Each group was then given a questionnaire asking them about their beliefs on the necessity of black-only colleges.
It also highlights how we can all be blind to obedience often doing things without question. Results do not appear to be consistent over time. Is an internal locus of control desirable. By doing this Milgram could identify which situational factors affected obedience the DV.
Conformity was measured by the number of times participants would go along with these incorrect answers.
In contrast a person with a high external locus of control perceive their behaviors as being a result of external influences or luck – e.g.
I did well on the test because it was easy.
Research has shown that people with an internal locus of control tend to be less conforming and. Locus of Control as a principle was originated by Julian Rotter in It considers the tendency of people to believe that control resides internally within them, or externally, with others or the situation.
Note that, like other preferences, this is a spectrum. Some people have a wholly internal or external locus of control, but many will. Locus of Control falls on a continuum, with those who believe that their life is largely controlled by outside forces (externals) falling on one end of the spectrum while those who believe that by and large they control their own lives (internals) falling on the other end.
Spector () used Rotter’s locus of control scale to determine whether locus of control is associated with conformity. From students, Spector found that individuals with a high internal locus of control were less likely to conform than those with a high external locus of control, but only in situations of normative social influence, where individuals conform to be accepted.
The extent to which people believe they have power over events in their lives. A person with an internal locus of control believes that he or she can influence events and their outcomes, while.
In some cases people can resist the pressure to conform or obey because of their personality. Rotter () proposed the idea of locus of control, which is the extent to which people believe they have control over their own lives.Outline and evaluate locus of control