In recent years, there have been efforts to broaden the scope of ethical analysis in health care to focus more directly on public-health issues.
However, paradoxically, health promotion activities that have achieved significant improvements in the adoption of healthier practices among large populations may inadvertently serve to reinforce, rather than reduce, existing social disparities.
In the context of health promotion interventions, it is particularly important from an ethical perspective to avoid manipulation and coercion for several reasons. Many bioethicists take as their starting point in assessing a problem or situation, a well established analytical framework based on the principles of autonomy respect for persons and individual rightsbeneficence doing good, optimizing benefits over burdensnon-maleficence not doing harm and justice a group of norms for distributing benefits, risks and costs fairly Beauchamp and Childress, From this perspective, an emphasis on personal responsibility plays a strong positive role in promoting the lives of individuals and communities.
One important assumption related to the use of personal responsibility as a positive motivator in health promotion draws on the notion of the right to autonomy, which is based on the assumption that individuals should be free to make their own choices about many health-related practices, so they should be encouraged, but not forced, to make responsible ones.
Such examples suggest that apparently self-regarding choices related to diet might be other-regarding in significant respects. A less restrictive approach utilizes directly observed therapy, in which a designated provider or case worker observes the patient taking his medications at home or in another outpatient setting.
Rather, it is widely assumed that public health and health policy should aim to produce the most health benefits, or aggregate health, in a population Brock Stipulations as to Correctness and Reliability of Health Information Health promotion often involves providing information that is intended to convince people that they should adopt particular health promoting practices.
On Liberty and Other Essays. The analysis of which of these actions are or are not ethically and politically justifiable is often informed by the harm principle, originally articulated by John Stuart Mill in his essay On Liberty. Take obesity, which disproportionately affects minority and low socioeconomic groups.
Ethical Issues Related to Appeals to Personal Responsibility Personal responsibility is commonly used directly or indirectly in many health promotion interventions. In the area of medical research, much attention has been devoted in recent years to strengthening systems for informed consent and community oversight.
To pursue these goals, public health must address a broad array of social conditions that extend beyond medical services. This raises the question of what should and could be the standards or procedures to ensure that informed consent is obtained on behalf of diverse populations.
It has been argued that among the wide range of health issues needing attention, the reduction of health inequalities has a special moral urgency.
Another example that demonstrates issues of equity as they relate to the ability to realize health information concerns menu labeling. For health promotion to effectively establish its moral credibility a number of steps are required. Exploitation of individuals in low-income countries — Current practices in medical research, for example, may expose participants to significant risks without a benefit for themselves or their communities.
The stipulations outlined in the framework of the Ideal Speech Situation include truth, correctness, sincerity, comprehensibility, and inclusion.
A list of references and other resources for public health can be found at the end of this article. Therefore, it is important to identify and elucidate them. This stipulation corresponds to one of the central guiding principles in social marketing: If a patient refuses a legally required immunization e.
For example, having certain diagnostic procedures for early detection of diseases or changing their diet.
But targeting also carries an ethical risk-the further marginalization and stigmatization of minority and socio-economically marginalized groups.
Social Science Medicine ;47 This is a controversial area in law, and the law varies by state. Such examples suggest that apparently self-regarding choices related to diet might be other-regarding in significant respects. One prominent way this debate has played out in U.
For this purpose, the following sections will briefly outline several ethical conceptual frameworks that elucidate central ethical principles or concerns, followed by ethical issues associated with specific contexts or aspects of communication interventions.
Justice and the Politics of Difference. It adds a stipulation to autonomy in health promotion that people should have the capacity not only to choose, but be able to act upon their choice e.
Health promotion can no longer take its own moral credentials for granted. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal ;10 1:. Ethical issues in public health promotion J Gardner, MScMed (Bioethics and Health Law) Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of. Mar 14, · Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and research for disease and injury prevention (Association of Schools of Public Health USA).
Political, legal and ethical health promotion considerations There are various political considerations involved in health promotion for the patient. The main issue that is seen at the facility that I am located at is the allocation of resources for wound care treatment.
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Health promotion involves a commitment to all kinds of activities to promote health, and this will inevitably touch on controversial political issues, such as the role of environmental and socioeconomic determinants of health. GoalReduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all Social attitudes and political and legal responses to the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs make substance abuse one of the most complex public health issues.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People midcourse. Ethical Issues in Health Promotion and Communication Interventions Summary and Keywords Health promotion communication interventions invariably raise ethical issues because they aim to influence people’s views and lifestyles, and they are often initiated, funded, and influenced by government agencies or powerful public or private organizations.Political legal and ethical health promotion